Baroque

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(1600 – 1750) Early Baroque art appeared in Italy in the late 16th century, while some countries such as Germany and colonial South America did not adopt the style until as late as the 18th century. It was the popular style during the Counter-Reformation in the 17th century. Some of its characteristics are evident in Dutch art, but it was mainly limited to Catholic countries. Not solely associated with religious art, the Baroque style can also be seen in other forms such as Dutch still-life paintings. At the beginning of the 17th century, the Baroque style spread from Rome and migrated to varying countries, evolving as artists fused it with the traditions of their native countries. Spain and Latin America added extravagance to the style, while other countries made it more conservative. The movement never gained popularity in Holland or England, but was successful in Flanders, supported by Peter Paul Rubens. In France, the Baroque style was favored by the monarchy and used in architecture, sculpture, painting, and decorations, making way for its successor, the Rococo movement. Baroque painters, sculptors, and architects sought to portray emotion, variety, and movement in their works by appealing to the senses. Other qualities include drama, grandeur, richness, vitality, movement, tension, exuberance, and a tendency to blur distinction between the various arts. Baroque Style was typified by strong contrasts in value and bold ornamentation that added action and drama to the art. The leading figures of the Italian Baroque style were Caravaggio and Annibale Carracci, who departed from High Renaissance style to bring more substance to Italian paintings. Baroque took movement and emotion from the Mannerist style and grandeur and solidity from the Renaissance to create a new movement. The pinnacle of Baroque art was Gianlorenzo Bernini, who dominated the High Baroque Period with his energetic and virtuous paintings.